Политическа икономика

Политическата икономия е изучаване на производството и търговията и техните отношения със закона, обичаите и правителството; и с разпределението на националния доход и богатство. Като дисциплина политическата икономия възниква в моралната философия през 18-ти век, за да изследва управлението на богатството на държавите, като „политически“ означава гръцката дума „политика“, а „икономика“ означава гръцката дума οἰκονομία (управление на домакинството). Най-ранните трудове по политическа икономия обикновено се приписват на британските учени Адам Смит, Томас Малтус и Дейвид Рикардо, въпреки че са предшествани от работата на френските физиократи, като Франсоа Кене (1694–1774) и Ан-Робер-Жак Тюрго (1727–1781). Има и традиция, която е почти толкова дълга, на критика на политическата икономия.

В края на 19 век терминът “икономика” постепенно започва да замества термина “политическа икономия” с възхода на математическото моделиране, съвпадащ с публикуването на влиятелен учебник от Алфред Маршал през 1890 г. По-рано Уилям Стенли Джевънс, привърженик на математическите методи, приложени към предмета, застъпиха икономиката за краткост и с надеждата терминът да стане „признато име на наука“. Показателите за измерване на цитати от Google Ngram Viewer показват, че използването на термина “икономика” започва да засенчва “политическата икономия” около 1910 г., превръщайки се в предпочитания термин за дисциплината през 1920 г. Днес терминът “икономика” обикновено се отнася до тясното изследване на икономиката липсват други политически и социални съображения, докато терминът “политическа икономия” представлява отделен и конкурентен подход.

На обикновен език „политическата икономия“ може просто да се отнася до съветите, дадени от икономисти на правителството или обществеността относно общата икономическа политика или относно конкретни икономически предложения, разработени от политолози.[6] Бързо разрастващата се мейнстрийм литература от 70-те години на миналия век се разшири отвъд модела на икономическа политика, в който планиращите максимизират полезността на представителен индивид, за да изследват как политическите сили влияят на избора на икономически политики, особено що се отнася до разпределителните конфликти и политическите институции.

Предлага се като самостоятелна област на обучение или се предлага по икономика или политически науки в някои институции, включително Харвардския университет, Принстънския университет, Лондонското училище по икономика, Станфордския университет, Чикагския университет и др.

Funder bars university

The choice of a famend analysis donor to disclaim coveted million-dollar scholarships to professors on the College of Melbourne due to considerations about gender and variety has been extensively praised by Australian researchers.
Earlier this month, the Snow Medical Analysis Basis declared that it’s going to now not fund the College of Melbourne’s honorary levels program due to the college’s failure to incorporate girls or individuals of colour within the awarding of the honorary levels that happened on February 28. The Snow Medical Basis, which is Australia’s largest philanthropic supporter of medical analysis, has taken a tough place on gender inequity, researchers inform Nature.
Billie Bonevski, a health-behaviour scientist at Flinder’s College in Adelaide, says that “the talks about gender equality have been happening for thus lengthy, it is incredible that somebody’s taken that extra step.” In accordance with various lecturers, that is seen as “a jolt to the system finally.”
Nicola Smith, a molecular pharmacologist on the College of New South Wales in Sydney, argues that the prospect of getting cash eliminated due of gender and variety points would power different establishments to “cease and have a brief reflection on whether or not they’re adopting their insurance policies quickly sufficient.”
calculating the sexes
Researchers contacted by Nature remarked that Snow Medical’s response is consultant of an Australian reckoning with girls’s rights. Protests over the federal government’s dealing with of a sexual assault in Canberra’s parliament constructing have been held by tens of 1000’s of individuals within the final yr. Even though each women and men apply for grants equally, a breakdown of presidency expenditures final yr discovered that males proceed to get the lion’s share of medical analysis funding in Australia.
The honorary diploma ceremony at which the {photograph} was shot was held on the College of Melbourne within the midst of this political atmosphere, one in every of its first in-person actions for the reason that outbreak. In accordance with James McCluskey, the college’s deputy vice-chancellor of analysis, three girls and one Indigenous man had been attributable to obtain honorary honors on that day however had been unable to attend.
“Reasonably naively, somebody snapped an image and uploaded it, pondering it was one thing to rejoice,” recollects McCluskey. What left had been the six white males. “It went terribly unsuitable.”
Seeing the image and realizing that everybody in it was white and male made Tom Snow, chair of Snow Medical, really feel sick to his abdomen, he claims.
inflicting a stir
There are three fellowships given out every year to early to mid-career researchers at Snow Medical, which was fashioned in 2019. For eight years, every fellow earns Aus$1 million (US$720,000).
With two present fellows from the College of Melbourne, Snow Medical is investing hundreds of thousands of {dollars} yearly in its analysis. Snow referred to as the college when he noticed the image and mentioned the issue with the establishment’s prime administration.
As McCluskey recollects, representatives of the college’s provost and co-vice chancellor met with Snow to undergo the image’s background and the college’s range and inclusion efforts. We did not have McCluskey on the assembly. Later, Snow Medical stated that Melbourne’s reply was “unsatisfactory” and that the muse wouldn’t settle for fellowship purposes from Melbourne till it “demonstrated superior outcomes.”
So far as McCluskey is worried, Snow is utilizing a single picture as a “litmus take a look at” of the college’s dedication to range and inclusion, which McCluskey deems “unfair”. He goes on to say that the proportion of ladies receiving honorary doctorates on the establishment has elevated to 35% as of 2017.
Impact that wasn’t deliberate
As Snow’s choice stays in place for not less than a yr, a number of students have raised considerations in regards to the impression on these the fellowship is designed to help. In accordance with an immunologist on the College of Melbourne, “The individuals impacted by Snow Medical’s choice are mid-career researchers, reasonably than the highest management who’re making decisions surrounding issues equivalent to honorary doctorates,” says Jennifer Juno.
A extra profitable technique might have been for the establishment to restrict the variety of fellowships obtainable to solely girls and individuals of colour. So far as he’s involved, “this short-term downside will yield huge long-term results for girls all through Australia and perhaps the globe”. Universities and medical analysis organizations have already emailed him to say that his selection was a “waking up name” to enhance their gender equality packages.
In gentle of current developments, the College of Melbourne stated it will reexamine its practices, particularly in relation to honorary levels. Scientists, however, are ready to see whether or not the newfound curiosity will result in actionable outcomes.
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