From a political point of view, the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism had a formative effect on the early modern period, which culminated in the Thirty Years’ War. Confessionalization leads to a profound change in all areas of life, which can also be understood as a modernization process. The resulting struggles bring about a new order in Europe, which recognizes Old Believers and Protestants as religious communities with equal rights. The absolute supremacy of Catholic Spain is gradually being pushed back.
At least in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a new type of state is emerging. The territorial state with a territorial lord differs from the medieval structures in that the landlord saw himself exclusively as a liege lord or vassal of the monarch, while the territorial lord appeared as a sovereign of his country.
The formative form of government in the early modern period is absolutism. With it comes a new form of economy, mercantilism. The way the monarch sees himself in relation to his subjects changes. The “Sun King” Louis XIV of France takes the view: “L’État, c’est moi”, in English: “I am the state”. King Frederick II of Prussia, on the other hand, as a representative of “enlightened absolutism”, sees himself as the “supreme servant of the state”.
The great persecution of witches also took place in the early modern period (and not in the Middle Ages). According to research by Heide Wunder, from which the concept of the “working couple” emerges, in the early modern period the working worlds of women and men in marriage were equal and complemented each other. Only with the emergence of the bourgeois world did domestic work and women’s work begin to be devalued.
At the end of this epoch, processes of democratization of society come to a breakthrough. This is expressed most strikingly in the North American War of Independence and initially also in the French Revolution, both of which initially lead to republican reorganization of society. As the nobility in France lose their social privileges, a democratic constitution becomes the written basis of the legal order in the United States.

Economic development

From an economic perspective, the Age of Revolution marked the end of feudalism, an economy based on land ownership, or rather the manorial rule of the landlord as liege lord or vassal of the monarch, and their possession of serf peasants. Furthermore, it means the end of the previous guild and estate system in the medieval towns. The expansion through increased seafaring and the associated discoveries led to new economic structures in world trade (see also India trade and China trade). It was replaced by a burgeoning colonialism and overseas trade by the great powers of Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, England and France and the development of manufacture. These developments laid the foundation for industrialization and capitalism. Silver mining had also undergone a profound change. The discoveries of silver deposits in the “New World” had led to the decline in traditional tin and silver mining in the Saxon and Bohemian Ore Mountains until this mining was finally discontinued. Absolutism brought with it a new form of economy, that of mercantilism. Capital gains based on trade give this system its name because the absolutist state used mercantile principles in its external relations. There is also the term early capitalism for this.
A major shift in industrialization came with the invention of the first fully functional steam engine by James Watt in the 18th century. This was preceded by steam engine designs which were far less efficient than, for example, those of Thomas Newcomen. This not only led to a revolution in almost all production conditions, especially in the iron industry, but also in the transport infrastructure through the introduction of the railway by George Stephenson, which began in England in 1825. However, this was also preceded by attempts by Richard Trevithick to construct a steam locomotive in 1804, which did not fail due to deficiencies in the locomotive technology, but due to the rail material. In a way, the invention of the railway heralded the end of the early modern period.

Early modern age

In the history of Europe, the terms early modern period, early modern period, early modern period or modern history usually refer to the period between the late Middle Ages (mid-13th century to late 15th century) and the transition from the 18th to the 19th century.
As with all periodizations in historical science, no exactly dateable epoch boundaries can be drawn. From a humanistic point of view, the changed image of man in humanism and the period of the Renaissance (rebirth of antiquity) shaped by it, as well as the development of book printing by Johannes Gutenberg, are considered the beginning of the turning point between the Middle Ages and modern times. Historically and politically significant turning points were the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the “discovery” of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492, the end of the Reconquista in the same year, the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494 and the imperial reform in the Holy Roman Empire in 1495 and the beginning of the Reformation 1517.
The end of the early modern period is largely agreed with the French Revolution (1789-1799), which also closes the Age of Enlightenment. The Ancien Régime collapsed after 1789, first in France and as a result of the revolutionary wars in almost all of Europe. In the German-speaking world, the early modern period ended in 1806 with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire under pressure from Napoleon. The early modern period is followed as part of the modern period by modernity, which continues to the present day.

late early modern period

The end of the epoch and the beginning of the modern age are largely agreed in historical studies with the French Revolution from 1789 onwards. The French Revolution was a consequence of the Enlightenment that had already carried the American Revolution of 1776. Due to the events of 1789, the Ancien Régime collapsed, first in France and, as a result of the Revolutionary Wars, in almost all of Europe. In Germany, this was expressed primarily by the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Despite the restoration of the old regime after Napoleon Bonaparte’s defeat in 1814/15, Europe had changed fundamentally politically. The historian Reinhart Koselleck assumes that further processes of change took place from around 1750 to 1850/70. He coined the term “saddle period” for this transitional period from the early modern period to modern times.

epochs in the early modern period

As a historiographer, Christoph Cellarius (1638–1707) was the first to use the term “modern times” to classify universal history. Gerhard Oestreich is considered one of the co-creators of the “Early Modern Age” as a separate discipline within history. In general, the concept of an epoch is associated with the appearance of humanism on the one hand and the end of the Ancien Régime on the other.
Depending on how you look at it, the early modern period can be divided into the following periods:
Dawn of the Renaissance (ca. 1350–1450) (often still attributed to the late Middle Ages) Age of Discoveries (1415–1531) Age of Reformation and schisms (1517–1648) (confessionalization) Period of the Baroque (“Absolutism”) and the Enlightenment (ca. 1650–1789) End of the Ancien Régime or beginning of the French Revolution (1789–1815) In Anglo-Saxon scientific terminology, on the other hand, one speaks of “Early Modern History” or, in relation to Europe, of “Early modern Europe” and thus usually describes a period from the 15th century to the late 18th century. This concept of periodization is based on the idea that the period “between the Reformation and the French Revolution” can be understood as an epoch of cultural transformation, which can be distinguished from both the Middle Ages and the modern age due to specific structures and processes.

The problem of epoch division

Every periodization in historical science is a setting based on certain criteria with the aim of systematizing the research field and delimiting and classifying a research object. As a result, only an approximation to historical reality is possible, or rather, a historical reality in the scientific sense is constituted in the first place. The transitions from the Middle Ages to the early modern period on the one hand and from this to the modern age on the other hand cannot be pinned down to individual dates. Rather, dates and specific events are only markers for orientation. The epoch boundaries are fluid and vary depending on whether, for example, political or socio-historical questions are in the foreground and which regions and countries are in focus. Moreover, many historical lines of development are of long duration and can also contradict a certain periodization.

Beginning of the early modern period

The intellectual and cultural awakening of the Renaissance and Humanism, the voyages of discovery by the Portuguese and Spaniards from the beginning of the 15th century, which changed the image of the earth forever, and the Reformation, which after 1517 destroyed the medieval unity of the (Western) Church destroyed – these three interrelated developments usually mark the beginning of the early modern period in European historiography.
In general, the Renaissance (rediscovery of antiquity) and humanism are seen as the beginning of a turning point. With it, a new image of man spread in Europe, which focused on the self-determined individual and his abilities. In philosophy, literature, painting, sculpture, architecture and all other cultural areas, people oriented themselves back to the forms and content of antiquity.
This development can be seen earliest in Italy, where it began as early as the 14th century, reached its first cultural heyday in Florence in the 15th century and from where it spread throughout Europe by the beginning of the 16th century. Italy owed its pioneering role not least to the acceptance of a large number of Greek scholars from Constantinople, which had been conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. These scholars brought with them to the Occident what had long been thought lost. At the same time, the spread of knowledge was greatly accelerated by Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press with movable type. This made it possible to accumulate knowledge, which developed particularly in the cities. In the cities, especially in the large imperial and Hanseatic cities, differentiated legal and organizational forms had been developed that had a great civilizing effect.
The invention of the printing press, in turn, helped an event to achieve a breakthrough that, particularly in Germany, is associated with the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times: the Reformation. Martin Luther based his 95 theses, which he published in 1517, on a precise study of the Holy Scriptures in Greek and Hebrew, i.e. on knowledge based on the preliminary work of the humanists of the previous century.
Luther defended his theses in 1521 at the Diet of Worms before Emperor Charles V, who ruled an empire “on which the sun never set”. The Spanish possessions in the New World that Christopher Columbus discovered in 1492, the same year in which the Reconquista ended with the conquest of Granada, also belonged to this empire. The first impetus for the Age of Discoveries came from Portugal: expeditions had been sent out on behalf of Prince Henry the Navigator since 1415 to find a sea route to India (India trade). Vasco da Gama succeeded in doing this in 1498. The discoveries of the Portuguese and the Spanish not only expanded the world view of medieval people, but also resulted in European expansion across the entire known world.

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