The Piano Sonata

The Piano Sonata No. 30 Op. 109 in E main from 1820 is the third to final of Ludwig van Beethoven’s piano sonatas. After the highly effective Hammerklavier Sonata op. 106, lengthy deaf, he returned with it to smaller dimensions and a extra intimate character. The sonata is devoted to Maximiliane Brentano, the daughter of Beethoven’s longtime good friend Antonie Brentano. In 1812, Beethoven had already composed the little piano trio in B flat main, WoO 39, for her.
Musically, the three-movement work is characterised by a free use of the normal sonata type. His focus is on the third motion, a posh set of variations as in op. 111.

Origin story

The compositional beginnings of op. 109 will be traced again to the primary months of 1820. They preceded Beethoven’s negotiations with Adolf Schlesinger, the publisher of his final three sonatas. Current analysis means that Friedrich Starke requested Beethoven to jot down a contribution for his piano anthology Wiener Pianoforteschule. Beethoven interrupted work on the Missa solemnis. In the end, nevertheless, he provided Starke the Bagatelles op. 119, nos. 7–11.

Key

In the middle of music historical past, there was a lot hypothesis and philosophizing in regards to the character of the person keys. It has typically been doubted whether or not the keys have any which means in any respect.
Nevertheless, particularly within the final three piano sonatas, which in a sure manner will be thought-about a pianistic abstract of Beethoven’s world of concepts, the selection of keys is definitely no coincidence, however well-considered.
This turns into clear when one recollects the function performed by keys in Beethoven’s solely opera, Fidelio. C minor and C main stand for evil and good, for tyranny and freedom, for darkness and lightweight, even for hell and heaven. As within the opera and even within the fifth symphony, Beethoven chooses these two keys in his final sonata, op. to defeat the evil on this planet and to create a world the place “all males turn into brothers”. The dedication of this sonata to Archduke Rudolph could even include a direct enchantment to a political authority to assist a liberation motion.
Within the opera, A flat main is the important thing of Florestan languishing within the dungeon, with whom Beethoven presumably identifies within the A flat main Sonata op. 110. That is virtually compellingly prompt by the easy proven fact that this sonata is the one one that doesn’t bear a dedication, i.e. that it stays utterly in Beethoven’s possession and offers together with his very personal inside being.
Lastly, within the opera, E main is the important thing of Leonore, who escalates in heroic pathos of loving self-sacrifice within the E main a part of her nice aria. The concept of ​​salvation by the “eternally female” (Goethe) is definitely additionally mirrored in Beethoven’s mysterious “immortal lover”. Towards this background, it could hardly be a coincidence that the Sonata op. 109, which is devoted to “Miss Maximiliana Brentano”, is in the important thing of E main.

Nepalgo Historia

Historia zaharra

Nepalek milaka urtetako historia luzea du. Kiratiak Nepalgo talde ezagunenetako bat dira, gutxi gorabehera K.a. 563koa. C. eta Aśoka enperadoreak Indiako iparraldea eta egungo Nepaleko Terai hegoaldeko eskualdea barne hartzen zituen inperio zabal baten gainean gobernatu zuten. i a. 200. urterako, inperio budista lekuz aldatu zuten hinduen feudoek, hala nola Licchavi dinastiak.

900. urtearen inguruan, Thakuri dinastiak Licchavi aroaren oinordetzan hartu zuen eta, azkenean, Malla leinuak jarraitu zuen, XVIII. 1768an, Gorkha errege Prithvi Narayan Shah-ek Katmandu hiria hartu zuen, bere erresuma berriaren hiriburu bihurtuz.1814an Nepal Erresuma Batuarekin (India Britainiar Konpainiak ordezkatuta) gerran sartuta egon zen, Orientales) gatazka batean. Gerra Anglo-Nepaldarra bezala ezagutzen dena, Sugauliko Itunarekin (1816) amaitu zena, zeinetan Nepalek Sikkim eta Hegoaldeko Terai laga zituen, britainiar erretiratzearen truke. 1857an Nepalgo Gurkhas britainiarrek Sepoy matxinada kentzen lagundu ondoren, Teraiko lur gehienak esker oneko seinale gisa itzuli zitzaizkien.

Demokrazia eta gerra zibila

Nepaleko Rani erregina bere damekin inguratuta, 1920ko hamarkadan.
Shah dinastia bertan behera geratu zen 1846an, Jung Bahadur Ranak herrialdearen kontrola hartu zuenean, ehunka printze eta buruzagi erail zituenean Kathmandu Kot (armategiaren jauregia) sarraskian. Ranak (Lambjang eta Kaskiko maharaja ia guztiak)9 heredatuko lehen ministro gisa gobernatu zuten 1948. urtera arte, britainiar koloniak bere independentzia lortu zuen arte. Indiak Tribhuvan erregea proposatu zuen Nepaleko agintari berri gisa 1951n eta Nepalgo Kongresuaren Alderdia babestu zuen. Tribhuvanen semeak, Mahendra erregeak, esperimentu demokratikoa desegin eta “panchayat sistema” bat (alderdi politikorik gabeko diktadura) aldarrikatu zuen, zeinaren arabera erreinua gobernatuko zuen. Bere seme Birendra erregeak 1972an lortu zuen tronuan eta panchayat politikan jarraitu zuen 1989ko Jana Andolanek (Herri Mugimenduak edo Mugimendu Demokratikoak) monarkia konstituzio erreformak onartzera behartu zuen arte.

1991ko maiatzean, Nepalek ia 50 urtean lehen hauteskundeak egin zituen. Nepalgo Kongresuko Alderdiak eta Nepalgo Alderdi Komunistak (Marxista-Leninista Bateratua) jaso dituzte boto gehien. Hala ere, bi alderdiek ezin izan zuten botereari eutsi bi urtez jarraian. Kritikoek diote gobernuaren erreformek ez zutela ordena politikoa nabarmen hobetu, gobernu berriak kleptokraziaren mugan dagoen muturreko ustelkeria ere ezaugarritu baitzuen. 1996ko otsailean, Nepalgo Alderdi Komunistak matxinada armatua abiatu zuen erregimena ordezkatzeko maoista joerako estatu komunista batekin. Gatazka honek 10 urte iraungo zuen, eta 12.700 pertsona baino gehiago hilko ziren. Sektore Informaleko Zerbitzu Zentroaren arabera, gobernuko indarrek hildako zibilen %85aren erantzule dira.

Nepalgo gobernuko funtzionario batzuen kontakizunaren arabera, 2001eko ekainaren 1ean, Dipendra printzeak, bere jauregira itzultzean, gau baten ondoren, bere gurasoak, Birendra erregea eta Aishwarya erregina, eta beste batzuk erail zituen errege-erregineko hainbat kide. familia, familia-gatazka baten emaitza. Bere buruaz beste egiten saiatu arren, Dipendra bizirik jarraitu zuen, eta koma batean erori bazen ere, ospitaleko ohean errege izendatu zuten, hiru egun geroago hil zen. Errege iragankorra hil ondoren, bere osaba Gyanendra tronuan sartu zen 2001eko ekainaren 4an. Nepalgo jendeak onartu ohi duen bertsioa oso bestelakoa da: errege-familiaren nukleo osoaren hilketa planifikatu zuen. geroago errege izango zena eta honen semeak burutuko zuena.

Nepaleko zati handiak hartzen ari dira matxinadak. Maoistek boteretik hurbil dauden alderdietako ordezkariak kanporatzen dituzte, bertako kapitalistak desjabetzen dituzte eta euren garapen proiektuak martxan jartzen dituzte. Beren espetxeak eta auzitegiak ere zuzentzen dituzte. Neurri hertsatzaileez gain, gerrillak bere presentzia indartzen ari dira Nepalgo gizarteko sektore garrantzitsuen artean duten ospeagatik, bereziki emakumeen, ukiezin eta gutxiengo etnikoen artean. Horrela, kastako diskriminazioa ezabatzen da, emakumeek gizonek dituzten oinordetza eskubide berberak jasotzen dituzte eta behartutako ezkontzak debekatuta daude. Horrez gain, maoistek doako osasun-laguntza eta alfabetatze eskolak ematen dituzte.

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United States


United States, United States of America, USA, till July 11, 1778, america of America, colloquially additionally America – a federal state in North America consisting of fifty states, bordering Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Arctic Ocean to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
The third largest nation by way of inhabitants (after China and India), and fourth in terms of area (after Russia, Canada and China.). It additionally contains non-state islands within the Pacific (Baker, Guam, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Kingman, Northern Mariana Islands, Halfway, Palmyra, American Samoa, Wake) and the Atlantic (Puerto Rico – the most important of them, formally related to america – Virgin Islands, Navassa). The nation’s de facto territory can also be the Guantánamo army base (in Cuba).
Linguistically and culturally various, militant peoples of Native People, together with the comparatively much less break up Inuit, inhabited the areas of at this time’s United States for about 10,000. years. Earlier than the arrival of Europeans and, consequently, their forcible importation of captured and enslaved Africans in West Africa to work on plantations, the indigenous inhabitants amounted to over 1 million inhabitants. Because of the conflict with the immigration of Europeans with higher weapons at their disposal, the indigenous inhabitants was subjected to continual, culturally devastating hostilities. Consequently, it has been decreased to a negligible fraction of a brand new entire. African-Americans, initially slaves, had been freed because of the bloody Civil Conflict within the 1860s and received by the opponents of slavery. The method of integrating them, in addition to the Indians, remains to be ongoing.

Historical past

Immediately, america is a culturally, ethnically, religiously and morally various nation. Then again, they’re additionally deeply polarized locations, a state that’s politically, ethnically, economically and morally divided. It’s an growing nation with a inhabitants of over 323 million individuals, marked by a big improve in immigration (authorized and unlawful), particularly from neighboring Mexico. A few of the surviving Indian communities nonetheless preserve their cultural and nationwide id (Lakota, Hopi). Many Indians are serving or serving in america’ armed forces (for example, the Navahs of World Conflict II as Indian ciphers). In lots of remoted ethnic settings, immigrants and native residents largely establish with the ethnicity of their ancestors, however this isn’t the nationwide social norm.

Financial improvement

The liberal guidelines governing the American economic system resulted in its speedy improvement. Common suffrage for whites and quite a few political freedoms contributed to the elevated inflow of settlers from Europe. They established dynamically creating enterprises, sustaining the ethos of labor, persistence and financial savings. The USA’ share of world manufacturing elevated from 7% in 1840 to 23.3% in 1870. New gear, akin to mix harvesters, was broadly launched. Nevertheless, the division into two financial zones grew to become an increasing number of seen – the commercial and urbanized North and the agricultural South, the place the work of slaves kidnapped in West Africa was massively utilized in plantations.